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Surfacing data in ArcSDE enterprise geodatabases in Portal

Surfacing data in ArcSDE enterprise geodatabases in Portal


Is it possible to use data from ArcSDE geodatabases (hosted in Oracle, in this instance) in Portal webmaps? I've been searching documentation and the internet for a while, and it's implied that it's possible, but I can't seem to find a specific instance of it being done or how to do it.


Yes (short answer)

How do I do that? (longer answer)

As @Vince and @Mike comment, the missing piece is "Publishing" a map and feature service(s) to ArcGIS for Server (AGS). So the roadmap is:

  1. a layer in ArcSDE (backend) gets modeled and populated with data, then
  2. added to an MXD (desktop) and manipulated until it appears as desired, then
  3. the Map is "Published" to an ArcGIS Server Map Service (middle-tier if you will) making multiple feature services (matching the MXD contents) available and ALSO referencing them within Portal (or ArcGIS Online), then
  4. the Map services are managed within Portal Administrator (or AGS Online) to share them with the right groups, etc.
  5. Applications are developed and deployed which consume these Map services and are based on web-language prototype applications.

Each of these steps are documented to one degree or another, but the high-level roadmap isn't always clear when reading the detailed documentation. Keep this roadmap handy while you review this tutorial (steps 3-4.)


Fire Enterprise Geospatial Portal

The links for the fire enterprise geospatial portal Portal have been listed below. All of the related Fire Enterprise Geospatial Portal pages and login addresses can be found along with the fire enterprise geospatial portal’s addresses, phone numbers. fire enterprise geospatial portal portal pages are updated regularly by the nwcg. If you have any questions related to the process of portal login for fire enterprise geospatial portal, you can report it directly to nwcg.

  1. Go to the Fire Enterprise Geospatial Portal Portal Page via “nwcg”.
  2. Use your login credentials for the Fire Enterprise Geospatial Portal Portal
  3. If you have a problem reaching out to the Fire Enterprise Geospatial Portal Portal or making a login, check the Troubleshoot section.

How far is your company on its Integrated Clinical Business Enterprise Data Warehouse journey?

Take this short survey to gauge your organization’s progress toward Integrated Clinical Business Enterprise Data Warehouse leadership. Learn your strongest and weakest areas, and what you can do now to create a strategy that delivers results.

To address the criteria in this checklist for your organization, extensive selected resources are provided for sources of further research and information.


How to Apply

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Few things to know before Apply for Mastercard Foundation Recruitment 2021

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GIS Data: Types and Structures

2 Geographic Data: Classic Approach Two components of geographic data Spatial Data: representations of geographic features associated with realworld locations Stored in files and managed by the GIS software Attribute Data: descriptive information stored in tables and managed by an RDBMS (relational database management system) (originally ESRI s proprietary Info system, but now any standard commercial system such as Access, Oracle, SQL Server ) Two formats for geographic data Raster data Rectangular array of cells or pixel Vector data: three feature types points/nodes lines/arcs areas/polygons (single x,y locations) (linear string of x,y locations) (closed string of x,y locations)

3 File Formats for Vector Spatial Data Coverage: vector data format introduced with ArcInfo in 1981 multiple physical files (12 or so) in a folder proprietary: no published specs & ArcInfo required for changes Can be exported to a single E00 (E-zero-zero) file for transfer Shape file : vector data format introduced with ArcView in 1993 comprises several (at least 3) physical disk files (with extension of.shp,.shx,.dbf), all of which must be present openly published specs so other vendors can create shape files Geodatabase: new format introduced with ArcGIS 8.0 in 2000 Proprietary, next generation spatial data model Can be saved in several different physical formats (as of 9.2) File based, MS Access based, commercial DBMS based Versions available which support multi-user editing and replication Shapefiles are the simplest and most commonly used format.

4 Anatomy of Spatial File Formats Shapefile Geodatabase Coverage The following two diagrams show how geographic files appear in: ArcCatalog Windows Explorer We will refer back to these as we discuss each of these file formats.

5 Spatial File Formats example ArcCatalog View Personal Geodatabase Feature data set Feature class (feature type = polygon) Feature class (feature type = arc) Coverage (= feature class) Feature type (arc) Feature type (point) Feature type (polygon) Feature type (point) Coverage (= feature class) Feature type (arc) Feature type (point) Locator (table) Raster Shapefile Shapefile Features (rows) Feature ID (key field) In a gdb, feature class can have only one feature type. A coverage can have multiple feature typesnow viewed as a shortcoming. Tracts feature class table (attributes in columns) Feature type Secondary or Foreign key

6 Spatial File Formats: Windows Explorer View Tracts coverage Trans coverage Locator (table) Personal Geodatabase Info master folder for AVCAT workspace Raster Tracts shapefile Trans shapefile

7 Shapefiles openly published structure for spatial data (Coverages & Geodatabases are proprietary) Partially an attempt (successfully!) by ESRI to make their format the industry standard much simpler than coverages: rather than multiple folders and files, three main files with same name (road) but different extensions, e.g. road.shp road.shx road.dbf Attribute (feature) data stored in dbase (.dbf) file Can be edited in Excel (or other) but do not change the number of rows If you add columns, may need to change refers to definition via Insert/Name/Define Files can be dragged, dropped, cut and pasted into other folders -- providing the complete file set is moved.

8 Geodatabase (gdb) File Structure

9 Geodatabase (gdb) Feature (vector) datasets Spatial Reference Object classes and subtypes Feature Classes and subtypes Relationship classes Network Topology Planar topology Domains Validation Rules Raster Datasets rasters TIN (3-D) datasets nodes, edges, faces Locators addresses x,y locations Zip codes place names route locations Anatomy of a Geodatabase Geodatabases may contain: feature datasets, raster datasets, TIN datasets, locators Feature datasets contain vector data All data in a single feature dataset share a common spatial reference system Features and feature classes are spatial objects (e.g. land parcels) which are similar and have same spatial form (e.g. polygon) Object (or feature) classes are the tables, and objects (or features) are the rows of the table Attributes are in the columns of the table Subtypes are an alternative to multiple object (or feature) classes (e.g. concrete, asphalt, gravel road subtypes): think of subtype as the most significant classification variable (attribute) in the class table Domains define permitted data values. Topology is saved as a relationship between the feature classes in the feature dataset.

10 Feature classes (FC), feature datasets (fds) and subtypes feature datasets (fds) are spatial folders which contain feature classes (spatial data sets, such as land parcel file or street file) All feature classes in a fds must have the same spatial reference system, but may have different topology (can have points and lines and polygons in same fds) Organize by thematic similarity e.g transportation If you wish to create topology, must be in same fds If they share geometry (street forms political boundary), should be in same fds If you create a geometric network (e.g. to model water flow) must be in same fds Security (read/write permissions, etc..) applied at the fds not the fc level. feature classes are spatial data sets containing geographic features (e.g. land parcels): a table with spatial data Data in FC must have same topology type (all points, all lines, all polygons) Water feature class with lakes (polygon) and streams (line) not permitted Minimizing the number of feature classes improves performance Use different feature classes only when attributes are significantly different Use roads feature class rather than freeway, arterial, streets feature classes Use subtype to differentiate freeway, arterials, streets (all have similar attributes) Subtypes are subclasses within a feature class that allow you to further distinguish objects without creating new feature classes based on a single column s values (must be integer or long integer) Same subtype has similar attribute values and behaviors Use where attributes are the same across all subtypes

11 Domains and Defaults Why Use Them? Data Integrity: prevents entry of invalid ( obviously wrong ) data values Data Efficiency: choose from a set of valid values rather than type in each time Domains define a set of legal values for a field s attributes Range domain: specifies a valid range of values for numerical attributes A water pipe must be between 1 and 100 inches wide Coded value domain: specifies a valid set of values for an attributes. Can apply to any type of attributes Parcels can only have RES or VAC land use values Domains are defined as a geodatabase property & then applied as appropriate Multiple objects in the same database may use the same domain May be applied to an entire field (attribute), or separately by subtype Defaults are values automatically assigned when a feature is created Of course, may be changed during data entry/edit process Again, may be applied to an entire field (attribute), or separately by subtype


Geographic Information System (GIS) for Managing Survey Data To the Development of GIS-Ready Information

1 Geographic Information System (GIS) for Managing Survey Data To the Development of GIS-Ready Information Zainal A. MAJEED, Malaysia and David PARKER, United Kingdom Keywords: Geographic Information System (GIS), survey data management, ArcGIS, spatial modelling, geospatial development SUMMARY This paper describes the use of current geospatial handling technology to manage captured and processed survey data and other information in the Department of Surveying and Mapping Malaysia, abbreviated as JUPEM. The data empowerment consequently advances to the stage of producing and delivering of GIS-ready information using current GIS technology. Basically, two management tools based on GIS fundamentals are used to carry out the objectives. Taking a practical, rather than conceptual approach, particular focus is placed on the need for the identification and application of existing geospatial standards and new available GIS technology in addressing some of these issues. A range of solutions have been developed for the management of survey and mapping information covering cadastral data, topographic and mapping data, aerial photographic images and geodetic information within Kuala Lumpur, the capital city of Malaysia. A modus operandi flow line is designed and tried to particularly fabricate a number of GIS-ready information out of the managed data and an on-line map visualisation and query of these geospatial data. The end product of the GIS is expected to resolve the issues of data integration and delivery from multiple heterogeneous data sources. The research employs current GIS software, ArcGIS and other spatial data handling application to carry out the task of data management, transformation and delivery. As widely as possible existing standards, current geospatial data handlings, protocols and GIS technologies have been used to develop solutions to the issues. 1/14

2 Geographic Information System (GIS) for Managing Survey Data To the Development of GIS-Ready Information Zainal A. MAJEED, Malaysia and David PARKER, United Kingdom 1. BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION According to records, JUPEM commenced its survey operation under the Torrens System in 1885 when the first Johor Survey Department was established [2]. However, land surveying was carried out earlier than 1885 after the British arrival in Malaysia. Survey records existed only in paper and films thus were not well-managed. Government projects, national developments and researches using and investigating historical survey data were costly, timeconsuming, and staff dependent. To better manage and allow more efficient access to surveyrelated data for both staff and customers, it is time that JUPEM should totally accept the task of compiling historic and notable survey-related information into digital format. The formatted data can then be easily available across the organisation by linking them to a new database or digital file storage. With these interfaces, time to explore historic data can be reduced relative to manually searching the paper records. Currently, the department have wide range of geomatics data captured and processed for land administration and various range of usages. Many of the datasets are scattered over the organisation and across the country in the state department. These data sources are often not easily available to either the public or the staff. A research task should be anticipated to bring together what is believed to be a fair sampling of all survey works that cover varied aspects of basic geography and GIS applications. It is trusted that with the new design of data assembling and computing management, the principles and properties of these datasets would have greater longevity and advantages to the geomatics and GIS world. JUPEM is divided into sections that deal with survey-related information covering Geomatic fields of geodesy, aerial photography, cadastral, topographic mapping. Even though a digital data management system does exist in some sections of the organisation, it is still problematic. Each database has its own discrete interfaces and staff to be skill and proficient in each of them. Great expenditure is needed to train staff and customers. These stand-alone entities and interfaces allow searching of all relevant data for a given area of interest in separate database, which is time consuming. At this stage there is no management system that gathers all survey-related information into one source. Figure 1 shows the vision of the organisation to have all data accessed in a single view. 2/14

3 Client Mapping One-point access Cadastral Store into one spatial database Aerialphoto etc. Melaka Aerial Photography FTKL State Cadastral shp,geomedia Mapping (including Geodetic) Figure 1: Context diagram of the single portal access of the various data A goal for JUPEM should be to formulate a more efficient system of accessing data for data users and providers leading to a reduction in time for emergency procedure, decision making and national infrastructure development. GIS technology is one way foreseen to resolve this issue. Generally, positive participation by JUPEM in the field of GIS is expected. To have GIS functionality into the domain, it is necessary for the organisation to transfer the spatial description of existing historical paper survey information into spatially accurate GIS data files. There will be a probability of entering survey data to the point level rather that the polygonal level so that data related to a given historical survey could be readily examined on the GIS map-based software. Because most sections in the organisation conduct data in tabular form, spatial feature-based queries were impossible or difficult. Spatial feature-based searches can enormously increase productivity and accuracy in survey-related enquiries. This is especially significant to staff or customers who are interested in locating data relevant to a given land parcel, highway or within administrative boundaries. GIS capability supports user-friendly map-based interface that are valuable for users wishing to visually scan available data over a given area of interest. With the survey-related data management system on the shelf, a prospect of the development of GIS can be realised. The existing huge digital topographic data in the department presents an immensely useful database for GIS [4]. However, the ongoing development would go a long way to meet the requirement of GIS because it has limited capability for processing non- 3/14

4 graphic attributes. Truly, GIS system combine graphic capabilities with strong non-graphic attribute linkages allowing complex queries, map overlay, polygon processing and geographic modelling operations. The department relies on the Computer-Aided Design (CAD) technologies and published hardcopy maps to meet public geospatial need. The demand for GIS data increases as time goes by, and JUPEM foresees taking the leading role in providing this spatial data. The department realises that it needs to develop an enterprise GIS and mapping system that produces sophisticated, integrated spatial information for the national s decision makers (in various government departments) and for the public as well. It is important to have a system facilitating seamless access to a variety of applications and formats. It is expected that thousands of existing CAD files can be automatically translated into GIS datasets, and other JUPEM s geomatics datasets can be managed using a range of GIS formats. The development of a National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) enumerates JUPEM involvement in playing a leading role in the implementation and operations (6). The commitment is shown by the devotion of significant amounts of senior management and expertise in its main operation. The Director-General of Surveying, two senior Directors and three Directors in the JUPEM Headquarters were appointed to assist and evaluate feasibility study in the Coordinating Committee. Five senior Land Surveyors, six fresh Land Surveyors and supporting staff were seconded to the Secretariat, and all states directors are member of the Coordinating Committee. By introducing the concept of databases with full implementation of modern computer technology and their pivotal role in the development of NSDI, JUPEM should initiate a reform which has wide ranging implications for the department and the country as a whole. With the deployment of digital field survey and office equipment, the department is now poised an important role in the establishment of land related information systems in the country in support of the government s effort in establishing an Electronic Government and a knowledge-based K-economy. The organisation is therefore carrying a weighty burden to fulfil its mission of providing digital spatial data as well as the geodetic reference framework in support of the geographic and land information systems in the country. It is hoped, at least for a start that the data from the topographic mapping database be used by other agencies as the basic geospatial data that can be utilised in establishing their respective database for GIS implementation. Therefore by the end of the day JUPEM should anticipate that a master plan of a contiguous coverage of the whole nation can be achieved and be the pride of the organisation. In line with the government's effort to push Malaysia to achieve developed nation status by the year 2020, there are various initiatives that have been drawn up to bring the country closer to that objective. One of these is the e-government initiative of using technology for the improvement of many services and connectivity of various products rendered by JUPEM. JUPEM has about 1.9 Terabytes of digital spatial data which are available for government, business, and public and individual s consumption (2). These data are stored in various seamless databases, data files and image files. These datasets should be able to serve communities who use geospatial data and information for businesses and developments. 4/14

5 There are a number of applications using GIS technology used in organisations to manage, maintain and distribute their data. Organisations maintain and provide specialised data according to their functions however in many cases users or even organisations themselves need other datasets for a particular application (1). A major dilemma that is still persisting in the GIS community nowadays in Malaysia and some developing countries is the missing of geospatial data and information as well as the geospatial data services it is how and where to find and access it. The growth of Internet access and use coupled with advancements in web based technologies over the past decade has provided new possibilities for the access, delivery and use of geospatial information (GI) (5). In recent years the GI sector has begun to recognise the importance and role of the web for the dissemination of spatial information, with many GI technology vendors now offering extended systems of Internet Map Server (IMS) to their desktop products e.g. ArcIMS, Geomedia, GE Smallworld IMS. The development of such systems has introduced and highlighted issues pertinent to the use of GI via the web. Traditionally, a gap has existed between surveying standards and practices and those in GIS (3). GIS specialists had expressed that surveying community are slow in achieving map and data product, not to mention expensive and unfinished artefacts. They instead produce their own data which do not compromise to the standard of formality in which surveyors respond that clients are confused and given with incorrect norm of data as well as map. This creates misunderstanding and surveyors esteem may be challenged in term of their public mission and work. This mental disagreement at least can be tackled by some available software technology which surveyors can easily incorporate their measurements and calculations into GIS databases that serve all sections and applications in an organisation. Survey data should therefore be stored in a GIS environment. 2. AIM AND OBJECTIVES The aim of this research is to manage captured and processed survey data within the associated organisation through the development of approaches to achieve information that is GIS-ready and eventually to disseminate the end product geospatial data over the Internet using current geospatial handling technology via all appropriate standards. Throughout the research the main objectives can be given as follows: To review the type and format of raw and processed survey and mapping data which were held in the Department of Survey and Mapping in Malaysia and suggest the vision of the end product of these data. To construct a survey data management system to facilitate the combination of data and information from raw and processed survey data from different seamless databases and sources within the JUPEM organisation using GIS technique. To design a flow line and modus operandi to remodel and transform the managed survey data into GIS-ready information using contemporary geographic information application and technology. 5/14

6 To develop an on-line geographic information system to facilitate the delivery of geospatial data via the Web to meet the needs of corporate Intranet and demands of worldwide Internet access. 3. TEST SURVEY DATASETS The Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia (JUPEM) is among the main government organizations providing high quality spatial data, survey and mapping products and services to the government, business, public and individuals for the purpose of national development, security and defence. Three types of datasets were acquired for the implementation of the research task. They are: Cadastral dataset, in Environmental System Research Institute, Inc. or ESRI s format shapefile (SHP), a data set type that stores geometrical shape consisting of a set of vector coordinates and attribute information related one-to-one with the associated shape. This dataset has spatial reference in local coordinate system. Topographical mapping data which are produced and stored in vector file format namely Data Exchange File (DXF), a two-dimensional graphics file format supported by virtually all CAD products.. The Rectified Skew Orthomorphic (RSO) coordinate system is assigned for its spatial reference. Digital aerial photographs which are scanned and stored in raster form, Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), non-rectified and not spatially-referenced. These datasets are collected, stored, and maintained in several sections as well as in different systems. They are chosen for use in the early part of the research due to their heterogeneous and proprietary nature in terms of format, resolution, and source, amongst others. They are thought to highlight issues and provide a basis for exemplifying possible solutions to the problems of GI accessibility within the enterprise and distribution via the web. Various vector and raster representation of survey-related information covering Global Positioning System (GPS) stations, Levelling Network, Malaysian Active GPS Station (MASS), Gravimetric Reading Station, Triangulation Station and Control Traverses will be included in the later stage of the research. 4. MODELLING RAW AND PROCESSED SURVEY DATA Geographic feature is defined by International Standards Organization (ISO) as an "abstraction of a real world phenomena", and a feature attribute as a "characteristic of a feature". Thus, survey data in points and lines are geographic feature which is a real world phenomena with a feature attribute that defines its dimension and location in space. We use a Structured Query Language (SQL) database to manage these data where features are managed in tables, an instance of a feature corresponds to a row, and an attribute of a feature to a column. 6/14

7 The spatial attribute of a geographic feature is defined by its dimension and location, and is referred to as the feature's geometry. The dimension of a geometry describes its form in space. The location of a geometry in space is defined by its coordinate system. The coordinate system contains information about the number of coordinate values, the mathematical rules for projecting the geometry coordinates, and how the coordinate system is related to a datum on the earth's surface. Spatially-related feature classes together with the topology, network object and spatial reference. RDBMS (SQL) CAD (DXF) topographic dataset A table with a shape field containing point,line and polygon geometry for feature. Each row is a feature Contains rasters which represents geographic phenomena of the data A collection of row each containing the same field. Feature class are tables with shape field Feature Dataset Feature Classes Raster Dataset Table Digital aerial photographs Cadastral datasets in shapefile Figure 2: The structural GIS elements that are used to develop the geographic data model of the test dataset. The geographic geodatabase represents a generic data model for the test data. Using standard relational database management system (RDBMS) technology, a data model for representing the test dataset as spatial information is created and called geographic database, in shorthand, geodatabase. This data model acts as a storage of geographic data implemented with the relational database, in this case, SQL database. All database elements are managed in standard RDBMS tables using standard SQL data types. In one case, a table is used to store topographic feature classes where each row in the table represents the feature. Each row in the table has a shape column used to hold the geometry or shape of the feature. This fundamental relational storage model is adhered to the Open GIS Consortium and the ISO simple features specification. All the topographic, cadastral and raster images are managed and stored in the relational tables. The table configuration for assigning the features in the geodatabase model allows the opportunity to manage all the spatial data in one database system. The geodatabase model is illustrated as in Figure 2. Geospatial data handling tool ArcGIS Desktop is used to create and work with the geographic data in the relational geodatabase. ArcMap provides a complete set of tools for working with the data in the database using the interface application for mapping and editing the geographic feature in the model. Applications for managing and geoprocessing geographic datasets are ArcToolboc and ArcCatalog that help to create and manage the datasets between the relational geodatabase and the application protocol. They are a powerful suite of applications and capable of interfacing each other and working together to perform all GIS tasks. These GIS applications are utilised to transform and manipulate the raw surveyed data 7/14

8 through the production of GIS ready information which then is stored and managed for intelligent GIS usage in a relational database. Data access uses the standard model defined in the SQL. The access is enabled on the traditional model supporting spatial and raster constraint in a query. A database connection is a connection to the source geographic data. It represents the server which can respond to request for geographic data. Spatial Data Engine (SDE) technology is used as the interface gateway to the relational database. ESRI s SDE called ArcSDE is employed to manage the test data in the SQL server which can then serve the data to the GIS applications and Internet Map Service as well. 5. TRIAL IMPLEMENTATION A few digital aerial photographs were stored and loaded using ArcSDE as the gateway into RDBMS SQL server. ArcSDE provides fast and scalable capabilities to access and manage raster data through ArcCatalog and ArcToolbox interfaces. The images in JPEG format were structured in the database using the raster catalog tool in a list of raster catalog. ArcSDE database supports various raster format and provides ease of interchange geospatial data between files storage and geodatabase or enterprise database. High resolution aerial photographs acquired from Aerial Photography Section were rectified via ground control point (GCP) from digital topographic features using ERDAS IMAGINE software. After given a spatial reference, the photographs were mosaiced producing a larger image of the test area. It was then gridded into small bounding rectangles covering the relevant area for the implementation of the application. During the process it has to be transformed from raster to tagged image file format (TIFF) file to Imagine (IMG) format and finally to JPEG format file to achieve a lower resolution and compact file size image in order to distribute on the network. These data were then stored back in ArcSDE database as GIS-ready information for overlay operation or as a background for vector visualisation. The topographic vector data, in six map sheets, obtained from digital mapping section are captured in DXF file format. It contains features of point, line and polygon geometry describing various dataset categories namely boundary, water, building, relief, transport, utility, vegetation and landuse. Spatial reference was assigned in the original datasets with real world coordinate which is then defined in ArcMap as RSO type. ArcSDE capabilities was used to manage the CAD data which can be read as a single background layer (CAD Drawing Layer) or as a collection of point, line, polygon, and annotation feature classes (CAD Feature Layer). CAD layers can be viewed and displayed individually in ArcMap thus enable the ease of selecting which feature to convert or manipulate. Figure 3 shows the CAD layer overlay the rectified and mosaiced raster image. They can be accessed and displayed directly from ArcSDE interface database. Feature Manipulation Engine (FME) software is used to convert the CAD file into shapefile before it can be stored and manipulated in ArcSDE database. In order to edit the polyline CAD files and form object-oriented features the layers are translated using FME Workbench interface. The translated data is assigned a group layer of feature datasets for GIS display 8/14

9 covering contiguous map coverage. The source datasets were accessed from ArcSDE database and transferred into the same database directly during the translation. Editing is carried out using the extension tool of ArcInfo and ArcEditor. Figure 4 shows the diagrammatic flow of the translation in FME. Figure 3: Original AutoCAD topographic data overlayed on raster data for managing the data manipulation to produce contiguous map objects for GIS usage. Figure 4: The operation model of FME Workbench in translation of geospatial data 9/14

10 Cadastral data of part of the Kuala Lumpur, capital city of Malaysia was utilised as a land administration and survey data coverage. The spatial information in the land parcel data includes land parcels boundaries, boundary markers and coordinates of boundary markers. The attribute information includes unique parcel identifier, lot number, parcel area, surveyed bearings, and surveyed distances, type of boundary marker, date surveyed and date approved. Since the data was in their local Cassini Soldner coordinate system, transformation of coordinates to RSO coordinate system was carried out. The coordinate transformation was undertaken in ArcGIS. Figure 5 is the result of the transformed cadastral data overlay on the raster aerial photograph. The overall flow line process of the datasets is depicted in Figure 6. Figure 5: A spatially-referenced cadastral data as managed on raster data 6. OUTCOME OF THE TRIAL IMPLEMENTATION The sample dataset achieved after trial implementation shows that the GIS-ready information can be produced using the RDBMS geodatabase and ArcGIS suite of application. ArcSDE gave a useful interface to fast access and effective management. Figure 7 shows the appearance of the end product when all the survey data have been populated into the relational database and current geospatial data handling functionality was used to explore the dataset within SDE Application Protocol Interface (API). The CAD data were transformed into contiguous coverage to enable spatial visualization and search within the application environment. Resultant cadastral land parcel polygon enables spatial and attribute search when seeking land property information using specific query. 10/14

11 Figure 6: The flowline of the data processing, data populating, conversion and dissemination Using ArcSDE connection, geographic datasets can be visualized across the Internet using the ArcIMS application interface. This was achieved as in Figure 8, except that the large raster images would need be compressed in order to be displayed in ArcIMS application viewer. Cadastral and topographic data in their raw or GIS-ready data can be accessed and query for spatial display. Different features can be displayed and explored for specific analysis. The implementation of map services is only at the early stage and a lot more needs to be done especially for application and web page customization for interactive usage. 11/14

12 Survey boundary lines feature created from survey activities. A land parcel polygon can be created out of the closed survey boundaries Survey mark point feature built from survey activities Building & water polygon features created from topographic CAD file Figure 7: The sample datasets in the tested application. The project contains three GIS-ready datasets. Figure 8: A test site shows on-line representation of the datasets which are stored in different servers. 12/14

13 7. CONCLUSION This research was intended to introduce a design system to manage survey datasets through the production of GIS-ready information using appropriate standard and computing application. The trial implementation does instigate sufficient results at present stage whereby the test datasets consisting of raster image and feature classes were being managed carefully through the platform of producing and delivering GIS-ready information. However there is still a need for an improved flow line of the process as more dataset type and volume covering other survey datasets held in a survey organisation would be used. The testing of the design and flow line has clearly shown the possibility to disseminate, retrieve and combine those data for visualisation and query over the web from multiple different data sources. ArcSDE tool enables the operating department to keep using their existing proprietary system without physically deposits all required data into a single system. ArcGIS functionality is proved offering capabilities for geospatial data interchange, manipulation and management as well. The ArcGIS application has clearly shown the successes of the concept of data integration on-the-fly from multiple heterogeneous geospatial data servers. The ArcSDE interface is discovered to be well-off and powerful to overcome obstacles in a timely fashion, effectively and manageable. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to thank the Director-General of the Department of Surveying and Mapping Malaysia (JUPEM) in Jalan Semarak, Kuala Lumpur and the respective officers for preparing and supplying the useful datasets. REFERENCES Chunithipaisan, S., Majeed, Z.A., James, P., and Parker, D., Abele, S. (2003). Geospatial Interoperability via the Web: Supporting Land Administration in Kuala Lumpur. Proceedings of MapAsia 2003 Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, October Department of Surveying and Mapping Malaysia Website. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) Brochures on ArcGIS Survey Analyst Extension Software, Kassim, M.M., Kadir, R.A. (1989). The development of national topographic and cartographic data bases for geographical information system (GIS) implementation in Malaysia. Proceeding of Asian Conference on Remote Sensing, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Open GIS Consortium. The Open Implementation Specifications. Tong, C.W. (2001). Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia: The Major Building Block for NaLIS. Open Seminar on Spatial Data Infrastructure in Asia and Pacific, 7 th 13/14

14 Permanent Committee on GIS Infrastructure for Asia and Pacific (PCGIAP), Tsukuba, Japan, April BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES Zainal A Majeed The author is currently studying research PhD in geospatial data management and Internet spatial data delivery to gain experience towards the programme of establishing NSDI in Malaysia. He has working experience of more than 20 years as a land surveyor in the Department of Surveying and Mapping Malaysia, the National Land Information System (NaLIS now called MaCGDI) and the National Institute of Land and Survey Malaysia. He has been a member of the Institution Surveyor Malaysia (ISM) and is a registered land surveyor to practice under the Licensed Surveyor Board, Malaysia. Professor David Parker He is a Professor in Geomatics at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, currently holding the post of the Head of School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences. CONTACTS School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences Cassie Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU UNITED KINGDOM Tel Fax Web site: /14


Administrative divisions

Japan consists of forty-seven prefectures, each overseen by an elected governor, legislature and administrative bureaucracy. Each prefecture is further divided into cities, towns and villages.

The nation is currently undergoing administrative reorganization by merging many of the cities, towns and villages with each other. This process will reduce the number of sub-prefecture administrative regions and is expected to cut administrative costs. [ 38 ]

Japan has dozens of major cities, which play an important role in Japan's culture, heritage and economy.


Contents

Early history

The oldest traces of hominid existence in Liechtenstein date back to the Middle Paleolithic era. [9] Neolithic farming settlements were founded in the valleys around 5300 BC.

Hallstatt and La Tène cultures flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC possibly under some influence from the Greek and Etruscan civilisations. One of the most important tribal groups in the Alpine region were the Helvetii. In 58 BC, at the Battle of Bibracte, Julius Caesar defeated the Alpine tribes, bringing the region under closer control of the Roman Empire. By 15 BC Tiberius, who was destined to be the second Roman emperor, and his brother Drusus conquered the entire Alpine area. Liechtenstein was integrated into the Roman province of Raetia. The area was maintained by the Roman military, which maintained a large legionary camp called Brigantium (Austria) near Lake Constance and at Magia (Swiss). A Roman road ran through the territory. In 259/60 Brigantium was destroyed by the Alemanni, a Germanic people who settled in the area in around 450.

In the Early Middle Ages, the Alemanni had settled the eastern Swiss plateau by the 5th century and the valleys of the Alps by the end of the 8th century. Liechtenstein was at the eastern edge of Alemannia. In the 6th century, the entire region became part of the Frankish Empire following Clovis I's victory over the Alemanni at Tolbiac in 504. [10] [11]

The area that later became Liechtenstein remained under Frankish hegemony (Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties) until the empire was divided by the Treaty of Verdun in 843 AD following the death of Charlemagne. [9] The territory of present-day Liechtenstein belonged to East Francia until it was reunified with Middle Francia under the Holy Roman Empire around 1000 AD. [9] Until about 1100, the predominant language of the area was Romansch, but thereafter German gained ground, and in 1300 an Alemannic population called the Walsers (originating in Valais) entered the region. In the 21st century, the mountain village of Triesenberg still preserves features of Walser dialect. [12]

Foundation of a dynasty

By 1200, dominions across the Alpine plateau were controlled by the Houses of Savoy, Zähringer, Habsburg, and Kyburg. Other regions were accorded the Imperial immediacy that granted the empire direct control over the mountain passes. When the Kyburg dynasty fell in 1264, the Habsburgs under King Rudolph I (Holy Roman Emperor in 1273) extended their territory to the eastern Alpine plateau that included the territory of Liechtenstein. [10] This region was enfeoffed to the Counts of Hohenems prior to the creation of the Liechtenstein dynasty.

In 1396 Vaduz (the southern region of Liechtenstein) was raised to the status of "imperial immediacy" and as such made subject to the Holy Roman Emperor alone. [13]

The family, from which the principality takes its name, originally came from Liechtenstein Castle in Lower Austria which they had possessed from at least 1140 until the 13th century (and again from 1807 onwards). The Liechtensteins acquired land, predominantly in Moravia, Lower Austria, Silesia, and Styria. As these territories were all held in feudal tenure from more senior feudal lords, particularly various branches of the Habsburgs, the Liechtenstein dynasty was unable to meet a primary requirement to qualify for a seat in the Imperial diet (parliament), the Reichstag. Even though several Liechtenstein princes served several Habsburg rulers as close advisers, without any territory held directly from the Imperial throne, they held little power in the Holy Roman Empire.

For this reason, the family sought to acquire lands that would be classed as unmittelbar ("unintermediated"), or held without any intermediate feudal tenure, directly from the Holy Roman Emperor. During the early 17th century Karl I of Liechtenstein was made a Fürst (prince) by the Holy Roman Emperor Matthias after siding with him in a political battle. Hans-Adam I was allowed to purchase the minuscule Herrschaft ("Lordship") of Schellenberg and county of Vaduz (in 1699 and 1712 respectively) from the Hohenems. Tiny Schellenberg and Vaduz had exactly the political status required: no feudal lord other than their comital sovereign and the suzerain Emperor.

Principality

On 23 January 1719, after the lands had been purchased, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, decreed that Vaduz and Schellenberg were united and elevated the newly formed territory to the dignity of Fürstentum (principality) with the name "Liechtenstein" in honour of "[his] true servant, Anton Florian of Liechtenstein". It was on this date that Liechtenstein became a sovereign member state of the Holy Roman Empire. It is a testament to the pure political expediency of the purchase that the Princes of Liechtenstein never visited their new principality for almost 100 years.

By the early 19th century, as a result of the Napoleonic Wars in Europe, the Holy Roman Empire came under the effective control of France, following the crushing defeat at Austerlitz by Napoleon in 1805. Emperor Francis II abdicated, ending more than 960 years of feudal government. Napoleon reorganized much of the Empire into the Confederation of the Rhine. This political restructuring had broad consequences for Liechtenstein: the historical imperial, legal, and political institutions had been dissolved. The state ceased to owe obligation to any feudal lord beyond its borders.

Modern publications generally attribute Liechtenstein's sovereignty to these events. Its prince ceased to owe obligation to any suzerain. From 25 July 1806, when the Confederation of the Rhine was founded, the Prince of Liechtenstein was a member, in fact a vassal, of its hegemon, styled protector, the French Emperor Napoleon I, until the dissolution of the confederation on 19 October 1813.

Soon afterward, Liechtenstein joined the German Confederation (20 June 1815 – 24 August 1866), which was presided over by the Emperor of Austria.

In 1818, Prince Johann I granted the territory a limited constitution. In that same year Prince Aloys became the first member of the House of Liechtenstein to set foot in the principality that bore their name. The next visit would not occur until 1842.

Developments during the 19th century included:

  • 1836, the first factory, for making ceramics, was opened.
  • 1861, the Savings and Loans Bank was founded along with the first cotton-weaving mill.
  • 1868, the Liechtenstein Army was disbanded for financial reasons.
  • 1872, a railway line between Switzerland and the Austro-Hungarian Empire was constructed through Liechtenstein.
  • 1886, two bridges over the Rhine to Switzerland were built.

20th century

Until the end of World War I, Liechtenstein was closely tied first to the Austrian Empire and later to Austria-Hungary the ruling princes continued to derive much of their wealth from estates in the Habsburg territories, and they spent much of their time at their two palaces in Vienna. The economic devastation caused by this war forced the country to conclude a customs and monetary union with its other neighbour, Switzerland.

At the time of the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it was argued that Liechtenstein, as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire, was no longer bound to the emerging independent state of Austria, since the latter did not consider itself as the legal successor to the empire. This is partly contradicted by the Liechtenstein perception that the dethroned Austro-Hungarian Emperor still maintained an abstract heritage of the Holy Roman Empire.

In 1929, 75-year-old Prince Franz I succeeded to the throne. Franz had just married Elisabeth von Gutmann, a woman from Vienna, who was wealthy because her father was a Jewish businessman from Moravia. Although Liechtenstein had no official Nazi party, a Nazi sympathy movement arose within its National Union party. Local Liechtenstein Nazis identified Elisabeth as their Jewish "problem". [14]

In March 1938, just after the annexation of Austria by Nazi Germany, Prince Franz named as regent his 31-year-old first cousin twice removed and heir-presumptive, Prince Franz Joseph. Franz died in July that year, and Franz Joseph succeeded to the throne. Franz Joseph II first moved to Liechtenstein in 1938, a few days after the annexation. [15]

During World War II, Liechtenstein remained officially neutral, looking to neighboring Switzerland for assistance and guidance, while family treasures from dynastic lands and possessions in Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia were taken to Liechtenstein for safekeeping. At the close of the conflict, Czechoslovakia and Poland, acting to seize what they considered to be German possessions, expropriated the entirety of the Liechtenstein dynasty's properties in those three regions. The expropriations (subject to modern legal dispute at the International Court of Justice) included over 1,600 km 2 (618 sq mi) of agricultural and forest land (most notably UNESCO listed Lednice–Valtice Cultural Landscape), and several family castles and palaces.

Liechtenstein gave asylum to about 500 soldiers of the First Russian National Army (a collaborationist Russian force allied to the German Wehrmacht) at the close of World War II. About 200 of the group somewhat voluntarily agreed to return to the USSR. They departed in a train to Vienna and nothing was ever heard of them again. The remainder stayed in Liechtenstein for another year, resisting, with support from Liechtenstein, further pressure by the Soviet government to participate in the repatriation programme. (In contrast, due to agreements made during the Yalta Conference, the western Allies repatriated Soviet citizens.) Eventually the government of Argentina offered asylum and about a hundred people left. This is commemorated by a monument at the border town of Hinterschellenberg. It is also the theme of the French television documentary Le dernier secret de Yalta (Yalta's last secret) by Nicolas Jallot.

However, it was revealed in 2005 that Jewish labourers from the Strasshof concentration camp, provided by the SS, had worked on estates in Austria owned by Liechtenstein's Princely House. [16]

Citizens of Liechtenstein were forbidden to enter Czechoslovakia during the Cold War. More recently the diplomatic conflict revolving around the controversial post-war Beneš decrees resulted in Liechtenstein not sharing international relations with the Czech Republic or Slovakia. Diplomatic relations were established between Liechtenstein and the Czech Republic on 13 July 2009, [17] [18] [19] and with Slovakia on 9 December 2009. [20]

Financial centre

Liechtenstein was in dire financial straits following the end of the war in Europe. The Liechtenstein dynasty often resorted to selling family artistic treasures, including the portrait "Ginevra de' Benci" by Leonardo da Vinci, which was purchased by the National Gallery of Art of the United States in 1967 for $5 million ($35 million in 2021 dollars), then a record price for a painting.

However, by the late 1970s it used its low corporate tax rates to draw many companies to the country, becoming one of the wealthiest countries in the world.

The Prince of Liechtenstein is the world's sixth wealthiest monarch with an estimated wealth of 5 billion USD. [21] The country's population enjoys one of the world's highest standards of living.


Culture

A diverse range of indigenous cultures exist in Myanmar, the majority culture is primarily Buddhist and Bamar. Bamar culture has been influenced by the cultures of neighbouring countries. This is manifested in its language, cuisine, music, dance and theatre. The arts, particularly literature, have historically been influenced by the local form of Theravada Buddhism. Considered the national epic of Myanmar, the Yama Zatdaw, an adaptation of India's Ramayana, has been influenced greatly by Thai, Mon, and Indian versions of the play. [326] Buddhism is practised along with nat worship, which involves elaborate rituals to propitiate one from a pantheon of 37 nats. [327] [328]

In a traditional village, the monastery is the centre of cultural life. Monks are venerated and supported by the lay people. A novitiation ceremony called shinbyu is the most important coming of age events for a boy, during which he enters the monastery for a short time. [329] All male children in Buddhist families are encouraged to be a novice (beginner for Buddhism) before the age of twenty and to be a monk after the age of twenty. Girls have ear-piercing ceremonies ( နားသ ) at the same time. [329] Burmese culture is most evident in villages where local festivals are held throughout the year, the most important being the pagoda festival. [293] [330] Many villages have a guardian nat, and superstition and taboos are commonplace.

British colonial rule introduced Western elements of culture to Burma. Burma's education system is modelled after that of the United Kingdom. Colonial architectural influences are most evident in major cities such as Yangon. [331] Many ethnic minorities, particularly the Karen in the southeast and the Kachin and Chin who populate the north and northeast, practice Christianity. [332] According to the The World Factbook, the Burman population is 68% and the ethnic groups constitute 32%. However, the exiled leaders and organisations claims that ethnic population is 40%, which is implicitly contrasted with CIA report (official US report).

Cuisine

Burmese cuisine is characterised by extensive use of fish products like fish sauce , ngapi (fermented seafood) and dried prawn.

Mohinga is the traditional breakfast dish and is Myanmar's national dish. Seafood is a common ingredient in coastal cities such as Sittwe, Kyaukpyu, Mawlamyaing (formerly Moulmein), Mergui (Myeik) and Dawei, while meat and poultry are more commonly used in landlocked cities like Mandalay. Freshwater fish and shrimp have been incorporated into inland cooking as a primary source of protein and are used in a variety of ways, fresh, salted whole or filleted, salted and dried, made into a salty paste, or fermented sour and pressed.

Burmese cuisine also includes a variety of salads (a thoke), centred on one major ingredient, ranging from starches like rice, wheat and rice noodles, glass noodles and vermicelli, to potato, ginger, tomato, kaffir lime, long bean, lahpet (pickled tea leaves), and ngapi (fish paste).

Burmese contemporary art has developed rather on its own terms and quite rapidly.

One of the first to study western art was Ba Nyan. Together with Ngwe Gaing and a handful of other artists, they were pioneers of western painting style in Myanmar. Later, most of the students learnt from masters through apprenticeship. Some well known contemporary artists are Lun Gywe, Aung Kyaw Htet, MPP Yei Myint, Myint Swe, Min Wai Aung, Aung Myint, Khin Maung Yin, Po Po and Zaw Zaw Aung.

Most of the young artists who were born in the 1980s have greater chances of art practises inside and outside the country. Performance art is a popular genre among Burmese young artists.

Media and communications

Due to Myanmar's political climate, there are not many media companies in relation to the country's population, although a certain number exists. Some are privately owned. All programming must meet with the approval of the censorship board.

The Burmese government announced on 20 August 2012 that it will stop censoring media before publication. Following the announcement, newspapers and other outlets no longer required approved by state censors however, journalists in the country can still face consequences for what they write and say. [333]

In April 2013, international media reports were published to relay the enactment of the media liberalisation reforms that we announced in August 2012. For the first time in numerous decades, the publication of privately owned newspapers commenced in the country. [334]

Internet

Internet use is estimated to be relatively low compared to other countries. [335] There had been censorship, and authorities view e-mail and posts on Internet blogs until 2012 when government removed censorship in media. During the strict censorship days, activity at internet cafes were regulated, and one blogger named Zarganar, was sentenced to a few years in prison for publishing a video of destruction caused by the Cyclone Nargis in 2008 Zarganar was released in October 2011.

In regards to communications infrastructure, Myanmar is the last ranked Asian country in the World Economic Forum's Network Readiness Index (NRI) – an indicator for determining the development level of a country's information and communication technologies. With 148 countries reported on, Myanmar ranked number 146 overall in the 2014 NRI ranking. [336] No data is currently available for previous years.

Myanmar's first film was a documentary of the funeral of Tun Shein — a leading politician of the 1910s, who campaigned for Burmese independence in London. The first Burmese silent film Myitta Ne Thuya (Love and Liquor) in 1920 which proved a major success, despite its poor quality due to a fixed camera position and inadequate film accessories. During the 1920s and 1930s, many Burmese-owned film companies made and produced several films. The first Burmese sound film was produced in 1932 in Bombay, India with the title Ngwe Pay Lo Ma Ya (Money Can't Buy It). After World War II, Burmese cinema continued to address political themes. Many of the films produced in the early Cold War era had a strong propaganda element to them.

In the era that followed the political events of 1988, the film industry has been increasingly controlled by the government. Film stars who had been involved in the political activities were banned from appearing in films. The government issues strict rules on censorship and largely determines who produces films, as well as who gets academy awards. [337]

Over the years, the movie industry has also shifted to producing many lower budget direct-to-video films.

Most of the movies produced nowadays are comedies. [338] In 2008, only 12 films worthy of being considered for an Academy Award were made, although at least 800 VCDs were produced. [339]

Myanmar is the primary subject of a 2007 graphic novel titled Chroniques Birmanes by Québécois author and animator, Guy Delisle. The graphic novel was translated into English under the title Burma Chronicles in 2008. In 2009, a documentary about Burmese videojournalists called Burma VJ was released. [340] This film was nominated for Best Documentary Feature at the 2010 Academy Awards. [341] The Lady had its world premiere on 12 September 2011 at the 36th Toronto International Film Festival.

Sport

The Lethwei, Bando, Banshay, Pongyi thaing martial arts and chinlone are the national sports in Myanmar. [ citation needed ] . Football is played in all over the country even in villages.

The 2013 Southeast Asian Games took place in Naypyidaw, Yangon, Mandalay and Ngwesaung Beach in December representing the third occasion that the event has been staged in Myanmar. Myanmar previously hosted the Games in 1961 and 1969. [342]


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